Key ancestry in East Anglia in England[ENG] (Cambridgeshire[CAM], Essex[ESX], Suffolk[SFK] & Norfolk[NFK]) and Meath[MEA], Longford[LOG], Wicklow[WIC] & Dublin[DUB] in Ireland[IRL], but also elsewhere in England. NB Question marks (?) indicate dodgy entries involving more than the usual amount of guesswork. Abbreviations - click here.
Surname interests include French & Teeling and Kemp, Milward, Norman, Scott, Softly/Softley & Wagg.
Genealogical Exchange: for further information, corrections and connections:
Email Chris at FrenchFamily.info
I may have further information not recorded on the web site.
Thankyou to the many people who have helped, apologies to those I have not credited.
Click on HOME to restore the frame and left index.
"THE ORIGINAL BREXIT"
Richard Webb's article The Original Brexit in the New Scientist for 9-Mar-2019 sets the scene for the United Kingdom - illustrated by the Natural History Museum below. Click on it to enlarge the view.
CHRIS'S MALE FRENCH LINE
Last Ice Age ends and land is colonised by hunter-gatherers
54 BCE AND FOLLOWING Maybe my male ancestors arrived in Essex with the Roman Legionnaires at Colchester and Caister St Edmund, Essex in the early part of the first millenium CE. But the surname suggests a much later arrival.
400-500 CE Anglo-Saxon
It was reported in 2015 that following collapse of Roman rule in Britain in 410, the "Anglo-Saxons were the only conquering force, around 400-500 CE, to substantially alter the country’s genetic makeup, with most white British people now owing almost 30% of their DNA to the ancestors of modern-day Germans."
Large-scale invasion by Danish Vikings
1066 CE And Following
The surname, FRENCH, suggests our male ancestor crossed the Channel from France in the early part of the second millenium when surnames were first introduced, maybe as part of Norman "immigration", eg David Weston. From "1066 and all that" to maybe as late as the 13th or 14th century. A quick Google found "Fixed surnames began in France around the year 1000, came into England with the Norman Conquest, and arrived in Scotland circa 1124" but also "The fashion of adding surnames began in Britain in the thirteenth century."
Geoffrey le Franceis (1205) and Richard Frensh (1425) are among those mentioned in connection with Frenches Farms at Little Bardfield and Felsted.
A sceptical view of surname origins has also been expressed, suggesting (eg Terry Smithers) that some serfs "took, or were given, the name of their lord or master, who may well have been descended from a Norman while the serf who adopted their name almost certainly was not".
"It is believed that the population [of England] grew quickly in the 12th and 13th centuries and reached between four and six million by the end of the 13th century. However, the 14th century was a period where disease and the struggle to produce an adequate food supply prevented further population growth ... in 1377... the total population is estimated to have been between 2.2 and 3.1 million ... By 1750 the English population is estimated to have been 5.74 million, probably similar to the level prior to the mortality crises of the 14th century."i Vide: The UK population: past, present and future. Julie Jefferies
1330-1550 CE - Before Parish Registers
Anyway, by the 14th Century the FRENCH surname was well established, mainly in the south of England - see the 14th Century GenMap UK chart below.
Also below is a blue cloropleth showing the distribution of immigrants with the FRENCH Surname in England between 1330 and 1550. All told over two thousand people living in England are listed as having migrated from France (including Normandy) with 'French' in one form or another in their surname during the period of the Hundred Years’ War and the Black Death, the Wars of the Roses and the Reformation. Fuller details can be found on the chart and clicking on it will reveal a Google map with details of all these immigrants. Our male-line ancestor may have come to England before of after this but maybe this period is most likely.
It has been reported that "People living in southern and central England today typically share about 40% of their DNA with the French, 11% with the Danes and 9% with the Belgians ... The French contribution was not linked to the Norman invasion of 1066, however, but a previously unknown wave of migration to Britain some time after then end of the last Ice Age nearly 10,000 years ago."
1500 CE And Following
There were also Huguenot Protestant migrations from France beginning in the 1500s, but heavier in the 1600s, and such immigrants might also have adopted the name French.
We are talking two types of family history here, social and biological. Unfortunately, the two will never completely agree due to misattributed paternity and nonpaternity events, including adoption, name change and illegitimacy (Is the probability of the problem of the order of 2 to 5% for each generation?), something which is virtually inevitable with any line in any family tree if you go back far enough! See:
Today's focus on Y-DNA and (to a lesser extent) mtDNA might lead some people to imagine that exclusive male and female inheritance lines are inheritantly more important than others of mixed gender, but this may not be so. It is just that from a practical viewpoint they offer potentially important tools to the amateur genealogist.
It might also be thought that we share some important obvious characteristic with everyone on these single sex lines or the associated haplogroups but there is no evidence for this.
Consanguinity or relatedness tell us what proportion of genes two people have in common. Genetics tells us that any individual should on average have 1/2 of their genes in common with each parent, 1/4 with each grandparent, etc, with each pathway the genes in common are halved. The following table illustrates the average relatedness for common blood relationships.
GENES IN COMMON
brother or sister
aunt or uncle
great aunt or great uncle
half aunt or half uncle
great great grandparent
first cousin once removed
great great great grandparent
But it is reported in 2007 that we share 99.5% of our DNA with Neanderthals and 95% of base pairs with chimpanzees. This is not - as it may at first appear - in conflict with the above table. In The Selfish Gene, Richard Dawkins puts it like
"The problem of relatedness trips many of us up in the following way. Any
two members of a species, whether they belong to the same family or not,
usually share more than 90
per cent of their genes. What, then, are we talking about when we speak
off the relatedness between brothers (=siblings) as one half or between first
cousins as one eighth? The answer is that brothers share half of their genes over
and above the 90 per cent (or whatever it is) that all individuals share
in any case. There is a kind of baseline relatedness."
An excellent introduction to genealogy genetics is DNA & Genealogy by Colleen Fitzpatrick & Andrew Yeiser (Fountain , 2005) which here in the UK I found cheaper to buy via amazon.com than amazon.co.uk. Another very good (a lot shorter and cheaper) guide is DNA for Family Historians by Alan Savin, 2003 at http://www.savin.org/dna/dna-book.html
Descendant Tree including William & Elizabeth FRENCH of Felsted and John FRENCH & Elizabeth BOWLES 'of Finchingfield',
Corrections and additions are welcomed. Please email me
Email Chris at FrenchFamily.info
The tree has been privatized with places and dates of living people
omitted. The names of living can also be changed to "Unknown" on request.
Please note that this tree cannot be 100 per cent accurate. From time to time
a little bit of guesswork (or maybe over-enthusiasm) has been used and
there will inevitable be errors within it. It isn't practical to include
sources and reasons for the guesses here. Please use your own critical
judgement. Corrections are welcome. I am currently in touch with other
Essex FRENCH researchers who have provided findings and helped me to assemble this information.
Indexes of the images of the early Felsted & Finchingfield parish registers available online at the Essex Record Office can be found here. Click on:
If this page has been reached directly, then clicking on HOME above will also restore the frame and left index. Then a click on "Family Genealogy" will enable the top links to our other genealogy pages with our roots and other family lines - two female (mtDNA), TEELING, NORMAN, SCOTT, MILWARD, SOFTLEY, WAGG and KEMP.